# Questions tagged [mathematics]

Mathematics questions deal with the arithmetic, geometry, calculus, formulae and other calculations used in the development of a game.

235 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
6k views

### Why use Time.deltaTime in Lerping functions?

To my understanding, a Lerp function interpolates between two values (a and b) using a third value (...
5k views

### How can I launch a GameObject at a target if I am given everything except for its launch angle?

I am trying to launch an object at a target, given its position, its target position, the launch speed, and the gravity. I am following this formula from Wikipedia:  \theta = arctan \bigg( \frac{v^...
146k views

### What math should all game programmers know? [closed]

Simple enough question: What math should all game programmers have a firm grasp of in order to be successful? I'm not specifically talking about rendering math or anything in the niche areas of game ...
133k views

### How to develop RPG Damage Formulas?

I'm developing a classical 2d RPG (in a similar vein to final fantasy) and I was wondering if anyone had some advice on how to do damage formulas/links to resources/examples? I'll explain my current ...
14k views

### How can I rotate about an arbitrary point in 3D (instead of the origin)?

I have some models that I want to rotate using quaternions in the normal manner, except instead of rotation about the origin, I want it to be offset slightly. I know that you don't say, in 3d space, ...
6k views

### Continuous weighted random distribution, biased toward one end

I am currently contributing to a particle system for our game and developing some emitter shapes. My uniform random distribution along a line or along a rectangular area works fine - no problem. But ...
21k views

### How do I sort isometric sprites into the correct order?

In a normal top-down 2D game one could use the screen y axis to sort the images. In this example the trees are properly sorted but the isometric walls are not: Wall 2 is one pixel below wall 1 ...
21k views

### Calculating minimum velocity of the projectile needed to hit target in parabolic arc

If I have a point which I want to hit at the end or during a parabolic arc, how would I calculate the needed x and y velocity?
77k views

### In Pong, how do you calculate the ball's direction when it bounces off the paddle?

I'm trying to wrap my head around this very Hello World-y problem in game development. I've created a TicTacToe game in XNA so I guess the next step would be a Breakout clone. Keep in mind that I ...
45k views

### Comparing angles and working out the difference

I want to compare angles and get an idea of the distance between them. For this application, I'm working in degrees, but it would also work for radians and grads. The problem with angles is that they ...
7k views

### What does the graphics card do with the fourth element of a vector as the final position?

From this question it appears you would want a four-element position vector, as it is simpler to modify its position with matrix multiplication. On its own this would imply the fourth element should ...
14k views

### How to calculate shot angle and velocity to hit a moving target?

I am developing a 2D Android game and I am making an aiming algorithm for AI projectiles to hit enemies either following a path, or free moving. At the moment it just calculates where the target will ...
3k views

### Lookrotation of a gameObject in just one axis

So I am trying to orient a gameObject ( house in the picture below) which is nothing but a plane and has a 2d texture on it as you see below. The whole game is made on a hex sphere. I am using ...
9k views

### How to balance experience gain in an RPG

I am currently developing an RPG game with a classic experience-points and levelup mechanic. The player kills monsters, gains experience points, levels up when they collect enough and become stronger. ...
21k views

### How to create adjustable formula for RPG level up requirements?

I'm trying to create a formula that can be modified simply by changing two values: number_of_levels, and last_level_experience. This is to enable people modding the game to change the levelling ...
59k views

### What are atan and atan2 used for in games?

I am having some trouble understanding Math.tan() and Math.atan() and Math.atan2(). I have ...
9k views

### How to convert mouse coordinates to isometric indexes?

I draw isometric map with tile 64x32: ...
4k views

### How do I calculate rotation caused by bounce friction?

Following on from my previous question: I have the ball quite realistically bouncing from surfaces it hits. Now I'd like to make it spin from the friction of the hit. Showing this is simple enough: I ...
3k views

### How does a 4x4 matrix represent an object in space and matrix lore?

I have been following some tutorials on how Matrix maths works, with adding, dividing, scaling, etc, but I am struggling to understand how the 4x4 matrix represents an object's position in space. ...
2k views

### How can I calculate normals using a vertex and index buffer?

Is it possible to calculate normals using the positions in a vertex buffer and index buffer? Would someone show pseudocode for the algorithm?
19k views

### Do I need the 'w' component in my Vector class?

Assume you're writing matrix code that handles rotation, translation etc for 3d space. Now the transformation matrices have to be 4x4 to fit the translation component in. However, you don't actually ...
1k views

### Why isn't this physics code scaling velocities separately?

I'm working my way through this book and I'm trying to work this code out: ...
13k views

### How can I generate a navigation mesh for a tile grid?

I haven't actually started programming for this one yet, but I wanted to see how I would go about doing this anyway. Say I have a grid of tiles, all of the same size, some traversable and some not. ...
15k views

### I am looking to create realistic car movement using vectors

I have goggled how to do this and found this http://www.helixsoft.nl/articles/circle/sincos.htm I have had a go at it but most of the functions that were showed didn't work I just got errors because ...
8k views

### How do I lerp between values that loop (such as hue or rotation)?

View Demo I'm trying to make the joint rotate smoothly around the center of the canvas, toward the angle of mouse pointer. What I have works, but I want it to animate the shortest distance possible ...
20k views

### How to rotate an object around world aligned axes?

I have a Vector3 which has an euler angle for each axis. Usually, when I want to create a rotation matrix I will use functions such as D3DXMatrixRotationX passing the respective angle from my ...
3k views

### How can I Intercept object with a circular motion

I am creating a 2d space game and need to make the spaceship intercept a planet. I have working code for straight line intercepts but cannot figure out how to calculate the planets location in a ...
4k views

### How to make the player slide smoothly against terrain

I'm making an isometric game. When the player tries to walk diagonally into a wall I want them to slide smoothly across it, so whatever portion of the movement would be legal is used, and anything in ...
4k views

### Projectile Aim Prediction with Acceleration

I'm trying to solve the classic shoot moving object problem but with acceleration attached to that changes it from a quadratic to quartic formula but my math skills are not this good sadly as i prefer ...
9k views

### How would I translate screen coordinates to Isometric coordinates?

I have a function isoToScreen(x, y) that converts Isometric coordinates to Screen coordinates. ...
11k views

### How do I interpret the dot product of non-normalized vectors?

I know that if you take the dot-product of two normalized vectors, you get the cosine of the angle between them. But if I take the dot-product of two non-normalized vectors (or one normalized, one ...
206 views

### Scaling a sphere to give identical result, regardless of rotation

how can I maintain a consistent scaling of a sphere regardless of the rotation of the model? For example, take the following (scaled) sphere: In this image, we start with a sphere, looking at it ...
3k views

### Create acceleration with direction

I want to move my object with an acceleration in the proper direction. For example if I have these values: friction = 0.3; direction = 180; speed = 5; For ...
17k views

### Moving ships between two planets along a bezier, missing some equations for acceleration

OK, I already posted this over at math.stackechange.com but didn't get any answers :( First of here's a picture of my problem, the description follows afterwards: So I got all the points and ...
27k views

### Good 3D Math Theory Books [closed]

I've been developing a modification for the Source engine for well over a year, but am now facing some troubles with the weapons, gamemovement (player physics) and player feedback from explosives. ...
75k views

### Moving an object in a circular path

I want to move one object (dot) in a circular path. How should I change the X and Y coordinates to accomplish this?
3k views

### How to determine which thrusters to turn on to rotate the ship?

The configuration of the ship changes dynamically, so I have to determine which thruster to turn on when I want to rotate the ship clockwise or counter clockwise. The thrusters are always axis aligned ...
10k views

### Why do we use the Pythagorean theorem in game physics?

I've recently learned that we use Pythagorean theorem a lot in our physics calculations and I'm afraid I don't really get the point. Here's an example from a book to make sure an object doesn't ...
3k views

### Calculating the output of two armies fighting

I am programming a strategic game using Flash. The game works very similar to the famous game "Travian". My problem is as follows: I am trying to make the calculation of the troops lost as a result ...
24k views

### Get position of point on circumference of circle, given an angle?

I would like to know how to get a specific point on the circumference of a circle, given an angle. The diameter of the circle is 1, and the center point of the circle is ...
6k views

### Algorithm to shoot at a target in a 3d game

For those of you remembering Descent Freespace it had a nice feature to help you aim at the enemy when shooting non-homing missiles or lasers: it showed a crosshair in front of the ship you chased ...
4k views

### Accurately simulating the lots of dice rolls without loops?

OK so if your game rolls lots of dice you can just call a random number generator in a loop. But for any set of dice being rolled often enough you will get a distribution curve/histogram. So my ...
35k views

### Determine Resulting Angle of Wall Collision

So I have an object moving in a direction towards a fixed horizontal or vertical wall. How do I compute the angle that the object should bounce off at? The object can approach the wall at an arbitrary ...
6k views

### How does UVW texture mapping work?

I'm trying to understand the mathematical theory behind UVW mapping. Can anyone explain me how UVW mapping works? Or at least provide me a pointer?
2k views

### Animated examples of different interpolations formulas: any link? [closed]

I remember having spotted a link to a huge page with different equations to non linear interpolation curves, for example if you want to stop a car smoothly, etc. Those can sometime be useful to ...
8k views

### Angle of Reflection

I have this "Breakeout style" game. I have a cannon at the center, blocks around the cannon and pads around the blocks. This is how the game looks like: I've managed to get the collision per ...
2k views

### Algorithm for randomly generating reachable platforms

I want to randomly generate reachable platforms on the fly for a 2D game. Right now, I am just creating platforms at random x,y positions. Only 4 platforms can exist at once, so once the 5th one is ...
8k views

### The view matrix finally explained

I must say that I am really confused by how a view matrix is constructed and works. First, there are 3 terms: view matrix, lookat matrix, and camera transformation matrix. Are those 3 the same, or ...