Each game has it's own "maximum number". One question that comes into mind every time I play a(nother) game is how are these maximums determined and how do these affect gameplay? To explain, here's some rough references from games and anime.
Numbers on Levels
One instance is the "level cap". In some games, it's 100 - which I can easily understand to be like percentage. But other games have weird level caps. I remember Fallout (3?) having a level cap of 30. The anime Log Horizon has a level cap of 90 (and increased to 100 after "the apocalypse"). Ragnarok Online once had 99, then increased (to 120?) for Renewal servers.
Numbers on Attributes
Another instance is attributes (Strength, Agility, Intelligence etc.). Ragnarok Online starts you at 5 a piece and level up in small increments. Skyrim starts you at ~15-25 depending on race. In the anime Sword Art Online, they have this scale of 1000.
Numbers on Damage
Then there's attack power. In Yu-Gi-Oh card game, the attack power comes in the thousands. MTG on the other hand is as small as 0-10, with the 1-6 range as very common numbers. DotA damage starts <100 and reach as high as 2000 on critical strikes.
Then there's this Skyrim mod that makes you level up in excess of the cap. Why would they make something like that? Is there something beyond the level cap that the regular game doesn't address? Is the system not enough?
In summary, here's my questions:
How are these scales and maximums determined? Is there some magical formula or a generic guideline (like from a game)?
How does these number affect overall gameplay? I mean I can have a 100-scale that does the same thing as 1000-scale or 10000-scale. But why do they opt for these numbers? Why go for smaller ones or the insanely huge ones?
Why is there a level cap? And what does it mean when the level cap is broken or increased?