# Generate a 2D distance grid in one pass

I'm trying to generate a 2D grid, for use in navigation, where each grid point holds the distance to the nearest obstacle (such as impassable terrain, or a constructed building). So for example, a grid point containing an obstacle would be 0, the grid point next to it would be 1, the next one further away would be 2, etc.

So far I've been able to accomplish this using multiple passes. Each pass, for every grid point, I take the lowest value from all neighbors, and add one. If I want to measure out to a max distance of, say, 10 grid points, I have to make 10 passes, slowly incrementing the most distance grid points.

My question is, is there a way to generate this sort of grid in just a single pass? This grid will be periodically updated during gameplay, and could be very large, so I don't want to be looping over it multiple times if I don't have to.

• Can't you just calculate the distance to the obstacle for each grid point? Instead of setting the grid points based off of the grid point next to them, just use the pythagorean theorem to calculate the distance. There are also breadth first search algorithms you could use (in a backwards fashion). Further, with a grid already in place, you could easily implement some kind of spatial partitioning to quickly find the nearest obstacle and get the distance to it. Apr 13, 2014 at 19:13
• There would be a large number of "obstacle" grid points, such as impassable terrain, or constructed buildings. Any grid point could potentially become an obstacle. I've updated my question to hopefully make this clearer. Apr 13, 2014 at 19:33
• Can you clarify what you mean by "a single pass"? Apr 13, 2014 at 19:36
• By single pass, I mean modifying each point on the grid only once. Right now I make multiple passes, incrementing each point on the grid to the correct distance value. Apr 13, 2014 at 19:38
• I think BFS would work here. Calculating distance means you alredy know where the closest obstacle is which you may or may not. Apr 13, 2014 at 20:29

You can use BFS to accomplish this exactly. You connect all obstacles as nodes (vertices) to the source node. Then simply connect each grid square to the it's neighbors.

You don't actually have to do the connecting. You could simply start with all obstacles in the Queue and keep adding neighbors.

Time complexity is O ( V + E) so in this case, grid squares plus grid edged = grid squares * 5.

Pseudo code:

  // First loop over array2d
// and register that the distance on tiles with obstacles is 0
procedure GridBfs(array2d, obstacles)
create a queue Q
create a set S //this is a 2d array of areas visited by the algorithm
enqueue obstacles onto Q
while Q is not empty loop
t ← Q.dequeue()
for all neighbors n of t loop
if n is not in S then
enqueue n onto Q
n->distance = t->distance + 1;
end if
end loop
end loop
return none
end BFS


This is based on the original BFS code from wikipedia. To get the neighbors, simply look above, beloow and to the left and right of t and you'll get all neighboring tiles, represented each by n in the algorithm.

Yes, as Arthur Wulf White writes, Breadth First Search is what you want. I wrote a quick & dirty interactive demo showing how BFS expands out from each of your obstacles to assign distances. 