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That is, given a terrain + seas, what are the most advanced approaches available, for game dev, for generating the climate and hence biomes for various areas of the terrain?

Are there tools that, given the aforementioned input, will model things such as:

  • Ocean currents
  • Prevailing winds
  • Rain shadows

And generate outputs for biome assignment (most typically moisture and temperature as inputs into the Whittaker diagram)?

I've studied Amit Patel's great article on this subject, but it does not do much to model climate or precipitation.

Note: by "available for game dev" I don't need a turnkey tool, just interested in approaches that people have tried and how well they work in practice. This means it could be some hacked-together monstrosity in an obscure roguelike, but not something that only exists in a PhD dissertation or requires a supercomputing cluster to run.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Agreed that this is too broad (or opinion based). The way the question is being asked, it's only going to generate a list of what people think is the state of the art. \$\endgroup\$ – MichaelHouse Mar 11 '14 at 18:06