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In opengl how do I render 2d sprites in opengl given that I have a png of the sprite? See images as an example of the effect I'd like to achieve. Also I would like to overlay weapons on the screen like the rifle in the bottom image. Does anyone know how I would achieve the two effects? Any help is greatly achieved.

alt text

alt text

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2 Answers 2

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What you are looking for is called a billboard or projective sprite. A billboard is basically a quad that always faces the camera. If you don't need it to always face the camera then the code/math will be much simpler.

You can read more about how to implement them here:

http://www.lighthouse3d.com/opengl/billboarding/index.php3?billCyl

http://nehe.gamedev.net/data/articles/article.asp?article=19

http://www.flipcode.com/archives/Billboarding-Excerpt_From_iReal-Time_Renderingi_2E.shtml

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Lighthouse link dead. \$\endgroup\$ Apr 12, 2016 at 9:30
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ciro Santilli 六四事件 法轮功 包卓轩 This is a 5.5 years old answer. \$\endgroup\$
    – Bálint
    Apr 12, 2016 at 10:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Bálint it is still useful to people today, including myself, thus my upvote. ;-) I'm not going to downvote you or anything. But this is also why it is good to summarize what links say in our answers ;-) \$\endgroup\$ Apr 12, 2016 at 10:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ciro Santilli 六四事件 法轮功 包卓轩 You can't downvote a comment :P \$\endgroup\$
    – Bálint
    Apr 12, 2016 at 10:31
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opengl-tutorial has:

Screenshot:

enter image description here

Code:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

#include <GL/glew.h>

#include <glfw3.h>
GLFWwindow* window;

#include <glm/glm.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp>
#include <glm/gtx/norm.hpp>
using namespace glm;


#include <common/shader.hpp>
#include <common/texture.hpp>
#include <common/controls.hpp>

#define DRAW_CUBE // Comment or uncomment this to simplify the code

int main( void )
{
    // Initialise GLFW
    if( !glfwInit() )
    {
        fprintf( stderr, "Failed to initialize GLFW\n" );
        getchar();
        return -1;
    }

    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_SAMPLES, 4);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_RESIZABLE,GL_FALSE);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_FORWARD_COMPAT, GL_TRUE); // To make MacOS happy; should not be needed
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE);

    // Open a window and create its OpenGL context
    window = glfwCreateWindow( 1024, 768, "Tutorial 18 - Billboards", NULL, NULL);
    if( window == NULL ){
        fprintf( stderr, "Failed to open GLFW window. If you have an Intel GPU, they are not 3.3 compatible. Try the 2.1 version of the tutorials.\n" );
        getchar();
        glfwTerminate();
        return -1;
    }
    glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);

    // Initialize GLEW
    glewExperimental = true; // Needed for core profile
    if (glewInit() != GLEW_OK) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Failed to initialize GLEW\n");
        getchar();
        glfwTerminate();
        return -1;
    }

    // Ensure we can capture the escape key being pressed below
    glfwSetInputMode(window, GLFW_STICKY_KEYS, GL_TRUE);
    // Hide the mouse and enable unlimited mouvement
    glfwSetInputMode(window, GLFW_CURSOR, GLFW_CURSOR_DISABLED);

    // Set the mouse at the center of the screen
    glfwPollEvents();
    glfwSetCursorPos(window, 1024/2, 768/2);

    // Dark blue background
    glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.4f, 0.0f);

    // Enable depth test
    glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
    // Accept fragment if it closer to the camera than the former one
    glDepthFunc(GL_LESS);

    GLuint VertexArrayID;
    glGenVertexArrays(1, &VertexArrayID);
    glBindVertexArray(VertexArrayID);


    // Create and compile our GLSL program from the shaders
    GLuint programID = LoadShaders( "Billboard.vertexshader", "Billboard.fragmentshader" );

    // Vertex shader
    GLuint CameraRight_worldspace_ID  = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "CameraRight_worldspace");
    GLuint CameraUp_worldspace_ID  = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "CameraUp_worldspace");
    GLuint ViewProjMatrixID = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "VP");
    GLuint BillboardPosID = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "BillboardPos");
    GLuint BillboardSizeID = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "BillboardSize");
    GLuint LifeLevelID = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "LifeLevel");

    GLuint TextureID  = glGetUniformLocation(programID, "myTextureSampler");


    GLuint Texture = loadDDS("ExampleBillboard.DDS");

    // The VBO containing the 4 vertices of the particles.
    static const GLfloat g_vertex_buffer_data[] = { 
         -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,
          0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,
         -0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,
          0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,
    };
    GLuint billboard_vertex_buffer;
    glGenBuffers(1, &billboard_vertex_buffer);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, billboard_vertex_buffer);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(g_vertex_buffer_data), g_vertex_buffer_data, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW);

#ifdef DRAW_CUBE
    // Everything here comes from Tutorial 4
    GLuint cubeProgramID = LoadShaders( "../tutorial04_colored_cube/TransformVertexShader.vertexshader", "../tutorial04_colored_cube/ColorFragmentShader.fragmentshader" );
    GLuint cubeMatrixID = glGetUniformLocation(cubeProgramID, "MVP");
    static const GLfloat g_cube_vertex_buffer_data[] = { -1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f};
    static const GLfloat g_cube_color_buffer_data[] = { 0.583f,  0.771f,  0.014f,0.609f,  0.115f,  0.436f,0.327f,  0.483f,  0.844f,0.822f,  0.569f,  0.201f,0.435f,  0.602f,  0.223f,0.310f,  0.747f,  0.185f,0.597f,  0.770f,  0.761f,0.559f,  0.436f,  0.730f,0.359f,  0.583f,  0.152f,0.483f,  0.596f,  0.789f,0.559f,  0.861f,  0.639f,0.195f,  0.548f,  0.859f,0.014f,  0.184f,  0.576f,0.771f,  0.328f,  0.970f,0.406f,  0.615f,  0.116f,0.676f,  0.977f,  0.133f,0.971f,  0.572f,  0.833f,0.140f,  0.616f,  0.489f,0.997f,  0.513f,  0.064f,0.945f,  0.719f,  0.592f,0.543f,  0.021f,  0.978f,0.279f,  0.317f,  0.505f,0.167f,  0.620f,  0.077f,0.347f,  0.857f,  0.137f,0.055f,  0.953f,  0.042f,0.714f,  0.505f,  0.345f,0.783f,  0.290f,  0.734f,0.722f,  0.645f,  0.174f,0.302f,  0.455f,  0.848f,0.225f,  0.587f,  0.040f,0.517f,  0.713f,  0.338f,0.053f,  0.959f,  0.120f,0.393f,  0.621f,  0.362f,0.673f,  0.211f,  0.457f,0.820f,  0.883f,  0.371f,0.982f,  0.099f,  0.879f};
    GLuint cubevertexbuffer;
    glGenBuffers(1, &cubevertexbuffer);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cubevertexbuffer);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(g_cube_vertex_buffer_data), g_cube_vertex_buffer_data, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW);
    GLuint cubecolorbuffer;
    glGenBuffers(1, &cubecolorbuffer);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cubecolorbuffer);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(g_cube_color_buffer_data), g_cube_color_buffer_data, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW);
#endif

    double lastTime = glfwGetTime();
    do
    {
        // Clear the screen
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

        double currentTime = glfwGetTime();
        double delta = currentTime - lastTime;
        lastTime = currentTime;


        computeMatricesFromInputs();
        glm::mat4 ProjectionMatrix = getProjectionMatrix();
        glm::mat4 ViewMatrix = getViewMatrix();



#ifdef DRAW_CUBE
        // Again : this is just Tutorial 4 !
        glDisable(GL_BLEND);
        glUseProgram(cubeProgramID);
        glm::mat4 cubeModelMatrix(1.0f);
        cubeModelMatrix = glm::scale(cubeModelMatrix, glm::vec3(0.2f, 0.2f, 0.2f));
        glm::mat4 cubeMVP = ProjectionMatrix * ViewMatrix * cubeModelMatrix;
        glUniformMatrix4fv(cubeMatrixID, 1, GL_FALSE, &cubeMVP[0][0]);
        glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
        glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cubevertexbuffer);
        glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, (void*)0  );
        glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);
        glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cubecolorbuffer);
        glVertexAttribPointer(1, 3, GL_FLOAT,  GL_FALSE, 0, (void*)0   );
        glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 12*3);
        glDisableVertexAttribArray(0);
        glDisableVertexAttribArray(1);
#endif



        // We will need the camera's position in order to sort the particles
        // w.r.t the camera's distance.
        // There should be a getCameraPosition() function in common/controls.cpp, 
        // but this works too.
        glm::vec3 CameraPosition(glm::inverse(ViewMatrix)[3]);

        glm::mat4 ViewProjectionMatrix = ProjectionMatrix * ViewMatrix;





        glEnable(GL_BLEND);
        glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA);

        // Use our shader
        glUseProgram(programID);

        // Bind our texture in Texture Unit 0
        glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0);
        glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, Texture);
        // Set our "myTextureSampler" sampler to user Texture Unit 0
        glUniform1i(TextureID, 0);

        // This is the only interesting part of the tutorial.
        // This is equivalent to mlutiplying (1,0,0) and (0,1,0) by inverse(ViewMatrix).
        // ViewMatrix is orthogonal (it was made this way), 
        // so its inverse is also its transpose, 
        // and transposing a matrix is "free" (inversing is slooow)
        glUniform3f(CameraRight_worldspace_ID, ViewMatrix[0][0], ViewMatrix[1][0], ViewMatrix[2][0]);
        glUniform3f(CameraUp_worldspace_ID   , ViewMatrix[0][1], ViewMatrix[1][1], ViewMatrix[2][1]);

        glUniform3f(BillboardPosID, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.0f); // The billboard will be just above the cube
        glUniform2f(BillboardSizeID, 1.0f, 0.125f);     // and 1m*12cm, because it matches its 256*32 resolution =)

        // Generate some fake life level and send it to glsl
        float LifeLevel = sin(currentTime)*0.1f + 0.7f;
        glUniform1f(LifeLevelID, LifeLevel);

        glUniformMatrix4fv(ViewProjMatrixID, 1, GL_FALSE, &ViewProjectionMatrix[0][0]);

        // 1rst attribute buffer : vertices
        glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
        glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, billboard_vertex_buffer);
        glVertexAttribPointer(
            0,                  // attribute. No particular reason for 0, but must match the layout in the shader.
            3,                  // size
            GL_FLOAT,           // type
            GL_FALSE,           // normalized?
            0,                  // stride
            (void*)0            // array buffer offset
        );


        // Draw the billboard !
        // This draws a triangle_strip which looks like a quad.
        glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP, 0, 4);

        glDisableVertexAttribArray(0);


        // Swap buffers
        glfwSwapBuffers(window);
        glfwPollEvents();

    } // Check if the ESC key was pressed or the window was closed
    while( glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE ) != GLFW_PRESS &&
           glfwWindowShouldClose(window) == 0 );


    // Cleanup VBO and shader
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &billboard_vertex_buffer);
    glDeleteProgram(programID);
    glDeleteTextures(1, &TextureID);
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &VertexArrayID);
#ifdef DRAW_CUBE
    glDeleteProgram(cubeProgramID);
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &cubevertexbuffer);
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &cubecolorbuffer);
#endif
    // Close OpenGL window and terminate GLFW
    glfwTerminate();

    return 0;
}

Tested on Ubuntu 15.10.

Axis oriented version of this question: How do I implement camera axis aligned billboards? Here we have done a viewpoint oriented billboard.

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