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XNA 4 includes the Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Audio.Microphone class which can seemingly read the raw sound data off the microphone via its API as documented:

GetData - Gets the latest recorded data from the microphone.

GetSampleDuration - Returns the duration of audio playback based on the size of the buffer.

GetSampleSizeInBytes - Returns the size of the byte array required to hold the specified duration of audio for this microphone object.

Can I read sound data using this class, record it in an array and then play it back? On the Xbox 360?

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You could try submitting the data from the microphone to a Dynamic Sound Effect.

I just wrote some code to test this, it works.

DynamicSoundEffectInstance sound;

protected override void Initialize()
{
    sound = new DynamicSoundEffectInstance(Microphone.Default.SampleRate, AudioChannels.Mono);

    Microphone.Default.BufferReady += (a, b) =>
    {
        byte[] data = new byte[Microphone.Default.GetSampleSizeInBytes(Microphone.Default.BufferDuration)];
        Microphone.Default.GetData(data);

        sound.SubmitBuffer(data);
    };
    Microphone.Default.Start();

    base.Initialize();
}

protected override void Update(GameTime gameTime)
{
    if (gameTime.TotalGameTime.TotalSeconds > 5)
    {
        Microphone.Default.Stop();
        sound.Play();
    }

    base.Update(gameTime);
}
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As a supplement to Martin's answer (can't comment yet, otherwise I would just do that):

http://create.msdn.com/en-US/education/catalog/article/dynamic_audio

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