Doing an SNES Mode 7 (affine transform) effect in pygame

Is there such a thing as a short answer on how to do a Mode 7 / mario kart type effect in pygame?

I have googled extensively, all the docs I can come up with are dozens of pages in other languages (asm, c) with lots of strange-looking equations and such.

Ideally, I would like to find something explained more in English than in mathematical terms.

I can use PIL or pygame to manipulate the image/texture, or whatever else is necessary.

I would really like to achieve a mode 7 effect in pygame, but I seem close to my wit's end. Help would be greatly appreciated. Any and all resources or explanations you can provide would be fantastic, even if they're not as simple as I'd like them to be.

If I can figure it out, I'll write a definitive how to do mode 7 for newbies page.

edit: mode 7 doc: http://www.coranac.com/tonc/text/mode7.htm

• there seems to be equations here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_7 Although, these days we have 3D acceleration, things like Mode 7, or the whacky way doom worked are more of a curiosity than a solution. – salmonmoose Mar 4 '12 at 12:27
• @2D_Guy this page explain the algorithm very well for me. You want to know how to do it, or you want it already implemented for you? – Gustavo Maciel Mar 5 '12 at 3:53
• @stephelton On the SNES systems, the only layer that could be distorted, rotated..(applied affine transformations with matrices) is the seventh layer. The Background layer. All other layers were used to simple sprites, So if you wanted a 3D effect, you had to use this layer, this is where the name came from :) – Gustavo Maciel May 8 '12 at 11:02
• @GustavoMaciel: That's a bit inaccurate. The SNES had 8 different modes (0-7), in which up to 4 background layers had different functionality, but only one mode (mode 7, hence the name) supported rotation and scaling (and also restricted you to a single layer). You couldn't really combine the modes. – Michael Madsen May 8 '12 at 15:30
• @Michael : i would also add : SNES was one of the first popular console to use this effect in the 90's (with game F-Zero), and that's why after that people start referring all 2D horizontal texture-mapped plane effects seen in other games as "mode 7". In reality, this kind of effect was not new and existed long time ago in arcade, cf. Space Harrier/Hang-On (1985). – tigrou May 8 '12 at 18:45

Mode 7 is a very simple effect. It projects a 2D x/y texture (or tiles) to some floor/ceiling. Old SNES use hardware to do this, but modern computers are so powerful that you can do this realtime (and no need of ASM as you mention).

Basic 3D math formula to project a 3D point (x, y, z) to a 2D point (x, y) is :

x' = x / z;
y' = y / z;

When you think about it, it makes sense. Objects that are far in distance are smaller than objects near you. Think about railroad tracks going to nowhere : If we look back at the formula input values : x and y will be the current pixel we are processing, and z will be distance information about how far the point is. To understand what z should be, look at that picture, it shows z values for image above : purple = near distance, red = far away

So in this example, z value is y - horizon (assuming (x:0, y:0) is at the center of screen)

If we put everything together, it becomes : (pseudocode)

for (y = -yres/2 ; y < yres/2 ; y++)
for (x = -xres/2 ; x < xres/2 ; x++)
{
horizon = 20; //adjust if needed
fov = 200;

px = x;
py = fov;
pz = y + horizon;

//projection
sx = px / pz;
sy = py / pz;

scaling = 100; //adjust if needed, depends of texture size
color = get2DTexture(sx * scaling, sy * scaling);

//put (color) at (x, y) on screen
...
}

One last thing : if you want to make a mario kart game, I suppose you also want to rotate the map. Well its also very easy : rotate sx and sy before getting texture value. Here is formula :

x' = x * cos(angle) - y * sin(angle);
y' = x * sin(angle) + y * cos(angle);

and if you want to move trough the map, just add some offset before getting texture value :

get2DTexture(sx * scaling + xOffset, sy * scaling + yOffset);

NOTE : i tested the algorithm (almost copy-paste) and it works. Here is the example : http://glslsandbox.com/e#26532.3 (require recent browser and WebGL enabled) NOTE2 : i use simple math because you said you want something simple (and dont seems familiar with vector math). You can achieve same things using wikipedia formula or tutorials you give. The way they did it is much more complex but you have much more possibilities for configuring the effect (in the end it works the same...).

• One thing to add, since the sin and cos of the angle are mostly constant per frame, be sure to calculate them outside of the loop for figuring out all the x, y positions. – hobberwickey Jul 8 '15 at 12:16

Here is the code to make it. I is the same code of the tutorial that I made on my blog. Check there to learn the Mode 7 method and the RayCasting.

Basically, the pseudo code is it:

//This is the pseudo-code to generate the basic mode7

for each y in the view do
y' <- y / z
for each x in the view do
x' <- x / z
put x',y' texture pixel value in x,y view pixel
end for
z <- z + 1
end for

Here is the code that I made in JAVA, following my tutorial.

package mode7;

import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.imageio.ImageIO;
import javax.swing.JFrame;

/**
* Mode 7 - Basic Implementation
* This code will map a texture to create a pseudo-3d perspective.
* This is an infinite render mode. The texture will be repeated without bounds.
* @author VINICIUS
*/
public class BasicModeSeven {

//Sizes
public static final int WIDTH = 800;
public static final int WIDTH_CENTER = WIDTH/2;
public static final int HEIGHT = 600;
public static final int HEIGHT_CENTER = HEIGHT/2;

/**
* @param args the command line arguments
*/
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {

//Create Frame
JFrame frame = new JFrame("Mode 7");
frame.setSize(WIDTH, HEIGHT);
frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
frame.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
frame.setVisible(true);

//Create Buffered Images:
//image - This is the image that will be printed in the render view
//texture - This is the image that will be mapped to the render view
BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(WIDTH, HEIGHT, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
BufferedImage texture = ImageIO.read(new File("src/mode7/texture.png"));

//The new coords that will be used to get the pixel on the texture
double _x, _y;

//z - the incrementable variable that beggins at -300 and go to 300, because
//the depth will be in the center of the HEIGHT
double z =  HEIGHT_CENTER * -1;

//Scales just to control de scale of the printed pixel. It is not necessary
double scaleX = 16.0;
double scaleY = 16.0;

//Mode 7 - loop (Left Top to Down)
for(int y = 0; y < HEIGHT; y++){

_y = y / z; //The new _y coord generated
if(_y < 0)_y *= -1; //Control the _y because the z starting with a negative number
_y *= scaleY; //Increase the size using scale
_y %= texture.getHeight(); //Repeat the pixel avoiding get texture out of bounds

for(int x = 0; x < WIDTH; x++){

_x = (WIDTH_CENTER - x) / z; //The new _x coord generated
if(_x < 0)_x *= -1; //Control the _x to dont be negative
_x *= scaleX; //Increase the size using scale
_x %= texture.getWidth(); //Repeat the pixel avoiding get texture out of bounds

//Set x,y of the view image with the _x,_y pixel in the texture
image.setRGB(x, y, texture.getRGB((int)_x, (int)_y));
}

//Increment depth
z++;
}

//Loop to render the generated image
while(true){
frame.getGraphics().drawImage(image, 0, 0, null);
}
}
}

The result is: • The explanation is here programandocoisas.blogspot.com.br. You can find there the tutorial step by step to make this effect. But I will update my post so to put the comments to be better ;). – Vinícius Biavatti Sep 17 '17 at 18:39