Other answers have covered an idea that I'll paraphrase here as:
Instead of having a puzzle which requires the player to find pieces of information from the world, have them find items. If the thing the player needs is some information then they can guess it, but if it's some items then it makes sense for the player not to be allowed to proceed until they have acquired those items within the game.
However, sometimes you might still want the puzzle to be information-based rather than item-based, for narrative or aesthetic reasons. In that case, the problem is that you want the puzzle to require the player to acquire information within the game, but you don't want the puzzle to be solvable by a player who has the exact same information acquired from outside the game, e.g. by guessing or looking it up on a wiki.
Here's a possible solution: make the player's character need a justification for why the information is correct. For example, suppose the player's character has been hired by a wealthy family to find where their deceased matriarch has hidden a particularly rare and valuable coin. In this case, the player needs to solve the puzzle by acquiring information, i.e. the location of the coin. In fact, the coin is hidden inside a porcelain ornament in the family's home, and the only way to get it out is to break the ornament into pieces.
Now suppose the player knows the required information (i.e. the coin's location) because they looked it up online, or they guessed. They can just go and break the ornament and get the coin, right? Not so fast, because the ornament itself is somewhat valuable and the family won't just let the player character break the ornament for no reason. So, the player actually needs to play the game and find the information about the coin's location in the intended way, because the player's character needs to be able to convince the family that that's where the coin is.
So, the goal is for there to be a narrative reason that the player's character must know the information, in order for the player to be mechanically allowed to have the character act on that information. Here's a few more shorter examples:
- You are disarming a bomb and if you enter the wrong code, it will explode; you can't just enter a code they looked up outside of the game, because the other characters aren't willing to risk the bomb blowing up without having some reason to believe you know the correct code.
- You are solving a mystery to find out who should be arrested for a crime that has been committed. You cannot have that person arrested without some evidence that they are indeed the culprit.
- There is treasure buried somewhere on this island, but it's going to take a lot of work to dig for it even once you know where it is. Your crewmates aren't going to dig in some random location that the player guessed, you need to find the treasure map so you can be sure that's where it's really buried.
The easiest way to have the player's character justify the information to other characters is to have them find an item which proves it. That may be fine for your purposes since the narrative of the puzzle is still about acquiring information rather than acquiring the item. But you can also have it work without an item; just have the dialogue play out differently (or, give different dialogue choices) depending on if the player's character has acquired the information.