I am implementing cascade shadow mapping algorithm and currently stuck with matrix transformations - my AABBs, when projected in light space are pointing in the direction opposite to the light: I was following the logic described in Oreon engine video on YouTube and NVidia docs.

The algorithm in my understanding looks like this:

1. "cut" camera frustum into several slices
2. calculate the coordinates of each frustum slice' corners in world space
3. calculate the axis-aligned bounding box of each slice in world space (using the vertices from step 2)
4. create an orthographic projection from the calculated AABBs
5. using the orthographic projections from step 4 and light view matrix, calculate the shadow maps (as in: render the scene to the depth buffer for each of the projections)
6. use the shadow maps to calculate the shadow component of each fragment' color; using fragmentPosition.z and comparing it to each of the camera frustum' slices to figure out which shadow map to use

I am able to correctly figure out camera frustum' vertices in world space: The frustum extends further, but camera clipping distance... well, clips the further slices.

For this, I use inverse matrix multiplication of camera projection and camera view matrices and cube in normalized device coordinates:

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _cameraFrustumSliceCornerVertices{
{
{ -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f }, { 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f }, { 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f }, { -1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f },
{ -1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f }, { 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f }, { 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f }, { -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f },
}
};


I then multiply each vertex $$\p\$$ by the inverse of the product $$\P_{camera} \times V_{camera}\$$

This gives me the vertices of the camera frustum in world space.

To generate slices, I tried applying the same logic, but using perspective projection with different near and far distances with little luck.

I then used vector math to calculate each camera frustum slice by taking the entire camera frustum vertices in world space and calculating the vectors for each edge of the frustum: $$\v_i = v_i^{far} - v_i^{near}\$$.

Then I simply multiply these vectors by the lengths of an entire camera frustum and multiply them by the corresponding slice fraction: $$\v_i^{near} + v_i \cdot \|v_i^{far} - v_i^{near}\| \cdot d_i\$$. Then I simply add these vectors to the near plane of the entire camera frustum to get the far plane of each slice.

std::vector<float> splits{ { 0.0f, 0.05f, 0.2f, 0.5f, 1.0f } };

const float _depth = 2.0f; // 1.0f - (-1.0f); normalized device coordinates of a view projection cube; zFar - zNear

auto proj = glm::inverse(initialCameraProjection * initialCameraView);

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _cameraFrustumSliceCornerVertices{
{
{ -1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f }, { 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f }, { 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f }, { -1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f },
{ -1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f }, { 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f }, { 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f }, { -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f },
}
};

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _totalFrustumVertices;

std::transform(
_cameraFrustumSliceCornerVertices.begin(),
_cameraFrustumSliceCornerVertices.end(),
_totalFrustumVertices.begin(),
[&](glm::vec3 p) {
auto v = proj * glm::vec4(p, 1.0f);
return glm::vec3(v) / v.w;
}
);

std::array<glm::vec3, 4> _frustumVectors{
{
_totalFrustumVertices - _totalFrustumVertices,
_totalFrustumVertices - _totalFrustumVertices,
_totalFrustumVertices - _totalFrustumVertices,
_totalFrustumVertices - _totalFrustumVertices,
}
};

for (auto i = 1; i < splits.size(); ++i)
{
std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _frustumSliceVertices{
{
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i - 1]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i - 1]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i - 1]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i - 1]),

_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i]),
_totalFrustumVertices + (_frustumVectors * _depth * splits[i]),
}
};

// render the thing
}


According to the algorithm, the next part is finding the axis-aligned bounding box (AABB) of each camera frustum slice and projecting it in the light view space.

I am able to correctly calculate the AABB of each camera frustum slice in world space: This is a rather trivial algorithm that iterates over all the vertices from the previous step and finds minimal x, y and z coordinate of each vertex of a camera frustum slice in world space.

float minX = 0.0f, maxX = 0.0f;
float minY = 0.0f, maxY = 0.0f;
float minZ = 0.0f, maxZ = 0.0f;

for (auto i = 0; i < _frustumSliceVertices.size(); ++i)
{
auto p = _frustumSliceVertices[i];

if (i == 0)
{
minX = maxX = p.x;
minY = maxY = p.y;
minZ = maxZ = p.z;
}
else
{
minX = std::fmin(minX, p.x);
minY = std::fmin(minY, p.y);
minZ = std::fmin(minZ, p.z);

maxX = std::fmax(maxX, p.x);
maxY = std::fmax(maxY, p.y);
maxZ = std::fmax(maxZ, p.z);
}
}

auto _ortho = glm::ortho(minX, maxX, minY, maxY, minZ, maxZ);

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _aabbVertices{
{
{ minX, minY, minZ }, { maxX, minY, minZ }, { maxX, maxY, minZ }, { minX, maxY, minZ },
{ minX, minY, maxZ }, { maxX, minY, maxZ }, { maxX, maxY, maxZ }, { minX, maxY, maxZ },
}
};

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices;

std::transform(
_aabbVertices.begin(),
_aabbVertices.end(),
_frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices.begin(),
[&](glm::vec3 p) {
auto v = lightProjection * lightView * glm::vec4(p, 1.0f);
return glm::vec3(v) / v.w;
}
);


I then construct an orthographic projection from that data - as per algorithm, these projections, one per camera frustum slice, will be later used to calculate shadow maps, aka render to depth textures.

auto _ortho = glm::ortho(minX, maxX, minY, maxY, minZ, maxZ);


To render these AABBs, I tried rendering the view cube, like with the camera frustum, but got some dubious results: Both the position and the size of the AABBs were wrong.

I tried making the AABBs "uniform", e.g. left = ((maxX - minX) / 2) * -1 and rihgt = ((maxX - minX) / 2) * +1, which resulted in only centering the AABBs around the same origin point (0, 0, 0):

const auto _width = (maxX - minX) / 2.0f;
const auto _height = (maxY - minY) / 2.0f;
const auto _depth = (maxZ - minZ) / 2.0f;

auto _ortho = glm::ortho(-_width, _width, -_height, _height, -_depth, _depth); I then used min / max values of each corresponding coordinate instead of +/- 1 in the view cube to get the correct results:

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _aabbVertices{
{
{ minX, minY, minZ }, { maxX, minY, minZ }, { maxX, maxY, minZ }, { minX, maxY, minZ },
{ minX, minY, maxZ }, { maxX, minY, maxZ }, { maxX, maxY, maxZ }, { minX, maxY, maxZ },
}
}; Last step of an algorithm, though is not willing to cooperate: I thought that by multiplying each of the orthogonal projections by the light' view matrix I will align the AABB with the light direction, but all I got was misaligned AABBs:

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices;

std::transform(
_aabbVertices.begin(),
_aabbVertices.end(),
_frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices.begin(),
[&](glm::vec3 p) {
auto v = lightView * glm::vec4(p, 1.0f);
return glm::vec3(v) / v.w;
}
); Only when I multiply it by both light projection matrix and light view matrix I get something similar to alignment:

std::array<glm::vec3, 8> _frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices;

std::transform(
_aabbVertices.begin(),
_aabbVertices.end(),
_frustumSliceAlignedAABBVertices.begin(),
[&](glm::vec3 p) {
auto v = lightProjection * lightView * glm::vec4(p, 1.0f);
return glm::vec3(v) / v.w;
}
); Ironically, seems the direction is opposite to the light' direction.

Despite my light being pointed to origin (0, 0, 0), the AABBs seem to be projected in reverse order.

Question: why is this happening? Why is the direction & order of the projections reversed? How to put it in a correct order?

I have figured a hacky (at least from my lack of understanding) way to fix the issue - construct a new light view matrix every time.

This is also what is happening in Vulkan example of cascade shadow mapping

Apparently, one needs to update the light projection and light view matrices for every new camera frustum slice. And that kind of makes sense - the projection parameters will be different for each cascade (aka camera frustum slice).

Seems like this approach works just fine in simple case:

glm::vec3 _frustumCenter(0.0f);

for (auto p : _frustumSliceVertices)
{
_frustumCenter += p;
}

_frustumCenter /= 8.0f;

// we position AABB at the center of a frustum slice (_frustumCenter) and orient it along the light direction
// the trick here is to offset the AABB by its half so that all the AABBs stack together nicely and neither overlap nor leave gaps
glm::mat4 _lightViewMatrix = glm::lookAt(
_frustumCenter - _lightDirection * ((maxZ + minZ) / 2.0f),
_frustumCenter,
glm::vec3(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f)
);

glm::mat4 _lightOrthoMatrix = glm::ortho(minX, maxX, minY, maxY, 0.0f, maxZ - minZ);


Yet when camera is initially moved away, the projections happen to be mangled:

So I have tried a yet another approach (which happened to be very similar to the one in Vulkan example).

Instead of calculating each AABB corner vertex in light space, I calculate the bounding sphere radius as maximum of the distances from each of the frustum slice corner to the frustum center:

glm::vec3 _frustumCenter(0.0f);

for (auto p : _frustumSliceVertices)
{
_frustumCenter += p;
}

_frustumCenter /= 8.0f;

for (auto p : _frustumSliceVertices)
{
}


I then use light direction, frustum slice center and the bounding sphere radius to create light view matrix:

glm::vec3 _maxExtents(_boundingSphereRadius);
glm::vec3 _minExtents = -_maxExtents;

glm::mat4 _lightViewMatrix = glm::lookAt(
glm::vec3(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f)
);

glm::mat4 _lightOrthoMatrix = glm::ortho(_minExtents.x, _maxExtents.x, _minExtents.y, _maxExtents.y, 0.0f, _maxExtents.z - _minExtents.z);


Since the projections I am mapping are built off the bounding sphere, they are rather huge. And they overlap. A lot:

So the orientation is correct, but the overlap (e.g. the projection size) is probably sub-optimal.

I was thinking about something similar to what is described in this blog:

Yet I can not think of a good intuition to build one - the only idea that comes to my mind is to get the face of a frustum slice AABB closest to the light and extrude it in the light direction.

But finding the face is a concerning part - don't want to mess with line-plane intersection - seems sub-optimal. And I can not universally pick a single face, since depending on the light direction I will need to extrude a different face: In the screenshot above you can see that different lights would need to extrude different faces for correct shadow mapping - light2 and light3 can not extrude the top face of the frustum slice / AABB, since that would provide wrong projection matrix and wrong shadows being cast.

And that is exactly the reason why I picked bounding sphere - it is uniformly oriented, so I can pick whichever direction I need (like light direction) and extrude my projection box from $$\center - direction\$$ in the $$\direction\$$.