LineRenderer is not your friend here. While you can somehow make it work (you would need to dynamically create and update the colliders by code), that is not something you want to do. (As reference https://answers.unity.com/questions/470943/collider-for-line-renderer.html)
If you want to use your laser to kill something, it is just a bunch of stretched shiny bullet packed together. All you need to do is create a small laser prefab with an image of your laser and you spawn them in quick succession. Each of those laser bullets can have their own collider and therefore your collision/ die/ kill etc call.
With a bullet prefab, you can for example easily move your ship, continue shooting and you don't care about already shot bullets. The line renderer would just stay where it is. You will have a really hard time to update it to match your movement pattern of the ship.
- instantiate a prefab should have no influence on your ships movement, if it does, you do it wrong. That would be a different problem and can only be helped if you post your implementation of it.
- You don't enable/ disable bullet prefabs. You instantiate them and usually have an offscreen collider that destroys them. Upgraded version is a pool manager for them but for starters offscreen destroyer will do.
- If you really want to use a linerenderer, you could take a look at raycasting and if that is an option for you. If the raycast hits, so should your laser if you use the same direction of it.