Is there a standardized method for creating a 2D ball physics movement like you can see on gif below?
This behavior could be characterized as 2D physics reflection. I would recommend reading on physics reflection, for example on the wikipedia page on physics reflection, especially the first opening section about Reflection of Light.
This diagram demonstrates the law of reflection, that \$θi = θr\$, or rephrased: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
Beyond the basics physics, the game in the gif likely also has special behavior to avoid situations where the ball gets stuck bouncing back and forth indefinitely. Additionally there is screen shake, motion blur, particles, and color tinting, all of which could be called "juice" or "game-feel".