You don't measure operations in time, because it only takes a couple of nanoseconds and it changes based on the CPUs clock speed. You should use cycles instead, these generally tell you how many steps it takes for a CPU to do an operation (this is a simplified explanation, but it should get the point across).
Addition and subtraction only generally take 1 or 2 cycles, multiplication takes 2-3, division is 10-20, square root is a ~100, trig functions are a couple hundred (if you want more detail, look into the intel optimization manual). Although these might seem like a lot, given how CPUs run at 4GHz (4 million cycles per second) these days, it's really not a lot.
However, in the case of game maker it's much more difficult to guess. It's not clear whether Game Maker uses an interpreter or compiler nowadays (it has used interpreter in older versions and we don't know whether they changed it since), so let's go with the worst case scenario and say it's an interpreter.
Interpreters (instead of taking your code and converting it to machine code) take your code, divide it into tokens and go through them one by one, executing the necessary operations. These require a large amount of branching and equality checking, so they can't match the speed of compiled programs. It's next to impossible to know how much time they need per operation.
However, since we're still working with modern, fast CPUs, stronger than the combined computing power of the Apollo program and using GPUs to make graphics even faster, if a 2d game maker game starts lagging, you most likely did something wrong. Make sure to not have 2 million particles in each scene.