Does anyone know what this terrain generation algorithm is called? I saw it in two places. One was on YouTube, and the other, on Wikimedia.
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In addition to what Pikalek said, it's also known as the Midpoint Displacement algorithm (because you perturb the midpoints of each edge) or Diamond-Square algorithm when working with a square instead of a triangle.
I've seen it referred to as 'fractal subdivision.' In this case, you assign a random height perturbation to the corners of the triangle, subdivided it at the midpoints of the edges & repeat the process over again for each triangle until some threshold is met.