Recently, I have been trying to learn modern OpenGL and I think I've grasped it (or the basics, at the very least.) but I have been having issues trying to make a triangle display on the screen but it doesn't seem to be working and I can't find where or what's going wrong. The console has proven fruitless and I've looked at examples on the internet for inspiration but I couldn't find what I was looking for.

Some things to note:

  • I know that the shaders are working correctly as I have them being loaded in at the start of the program and errors would appear in my program's console if they weren't working correctly. I have also checked and the shader program ID is correct.
  • I have loaded a triangle before in a rendering loop previously. However, I used const arrays instead of using STL vertex lists, which is what I'm using just now.
  • There are no empty lists. (As far as I and Visual Studio's inspector can tell, anyway.)
  • I have created a custom structure to help with loading in for glVertexAttribPointer called "VertexAttribPointerClass"
  • It's probably a very silly mistake.

Anyway, here's the code:



#include "ExternalLibraries.h"
#include "Shader.h"

namespace game
    namespace model
        namespace gfx
            struct VertexAttribPointerClass
                //  glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3 * sizeof(GLfloat), (GLvoid*)0);
                int _shaderPosition, _vectorSize, _type, _normalised, _stride, _offset;

                VertexAttribPointerClass(int shaderPosition, int vectorSize, int type, int normalised, int stride, int offset) :
                    _shaderPosition(shaderPosition), _vectorSize(vectorSize), _type(type), _normalised(normalised), _stride(stride), _offset(offset)
            class Model
                GLenum _drawSpeed;
                GLuint _shaderProgram;
                GLuint VAO, VBO, EBO;
                std::vector<GLfloat> _vertices;
                std::vector<GLuint> _elements;
                std::vector<VertexAttribPointerClass> _vapclasses;
                bool _wireframeMode;

                Model() {}
                Model(std::string shaderName, std::map<std::string, game::shader::ShaderClass*> shaderRegister, std::vector<GLfloat> vertices, std::vector<GLuint> elements, std::vector<VertexAttribPointerClass> vapclasses, GLenum drawSpeed, bool wireframeMode);
                virtual ~Model();

                void DrawModel();



#include "GraphicsModel.h"

game::model::gfx::Model::Model(std::string shaderName, std::map<std::string, game::shader::ShaderClass*> shaderRegister, std::vector<GLfloat> vertices, std::vector<GLuint> elements, std::vector<VertexAttribPointerClass> vapclasses, GLenum drawSpeed, bool wireframeMode)
    _shaderProgram = game::shader::getShaderClassFromRegister(shaderName, shaderRegister)->getShaderProgram();

    _vertices = vertices;
    _elements = elements;
    _vapclasses = vapclasses;

    _drawSpeed = drawSpeed;
    _wireframeMode = wireframeMode;

    glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &EBO);


    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(_vertices[0]) * _vertices.size(), &_vertices[0], _drawSpeed);

    glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(_elements[0]) * _elements.size(), &_elements[0], _drawSpeed);

    for (int i = 0; i < _vapclasses.size(); i++)
        glVertexAttribPointer(_vapclasses[i]._shaderPosition, _vapclasses[i]._vectorSize, _vapclasses[i]._type, _vapclasses[i]._normalised, _vapclasses[i]._stride, (GLvoid*)_vapclasses[i]._offset);



void game::model::gfx::Model::DrawModel()
    if (_wireframeMode)
        glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE);
        glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_FILL);

    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, _elements.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &_elements[0]);
    glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_FILL);

Initialisation Code

    std::vector<GLfloat> testModelVertices = 
        -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, //0
         0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, //1
         0.0f,  0.5f, 0.0f  //2
    std::vector<GLuint> testModelElements =
        0, 1, 2
    std::vector<game::model::gfx::VertexAttribPointerClass> testModelVAPClasses =
        game::model::gfx::VertexAttribPointerClass(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3 * sizeof(GLfloat), 0)
    currentGameEnvironment->currentGameVariables.models.testModel = game::model::gfx::Model("testShader", currentGameEnvironment->currentGameVariables.util.shaderRegister, testModelVertices, testModelElements, testModelVAPClasses, GL_STATIC_DRAW, false);

Render Loop

bool game::graphics::render(GLFWwindow* window, game::core::GameEnvironment* currentGameEnvironment)
    //Sets "window's" OpenGL context to be current.

    glClearColor(0.8f, 0.8f, 1.0f, 1.0f); //Sets the colour for glClear.
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); //Clears the COLOR-BUFFER-BIT with the colour above. Other available bits are GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT and GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT



    return true;

Sorry if I haven't uploaded enough information. -I can do so if needed, it's just that it isn't commented very well and I know for a fact that the other things work correctly.

Any help is appreciated!

EDIT #1: Used incorrect ENUM in glBindBuffer for VBO.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Check all gl function return codes, use the ARB_debug_output extension, and use a graphics debugger - have you tried any of those? \$\endgroup\$ – Sean Middleditch Nov 19 '16 at 0:06
  • \$\begingroup\$ I used glIntercept to get this log here: #The render log.# wglMakeCurrent(FB011C8C,00020000)=true glClearColor(0.800000,0.800000,1.000000,1.000000) glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT) glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,GL_FILL) glUseProgram(3) glBindVertexArray(1) glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES,3,GL_UNSIGNED_INT,0A286EF8) GLSL=3 glBindVertexArray(0) glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,GL_FILL) wglSwapBuffers(FB011C8C)=true I did fix an error as I used an incorrect ENUM in glBindBuffer. Apart from that, I didn't get errors that were my fault as the other errors are part of GLFW/GLEW. \$\endgroup\$ – Mr_Rockers Nov 19 '16 at 0:42

The problem I had was that I mistakenly put the _element array into the last parameter of glDrawElements when it just needed to be 0.


glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, _elements.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0);

Not this:

    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, _elements.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &_elements[0]);

According to www.learnopengl.com, the last parameter is to specify an offset in the element array. (Maybe for animations?)


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