The thing you currently have is a
transformation matrix Transfomation Matrices are way, to easily represent a the position, rotation and scale of an object in 3d or 2d scene, a 2d scene only needs a 3*3 matrix, a 3d one usually uses a 4*4, but 2d transformation can be represented in a 4*4 matrix too, but it just wastes space. The matrix is oriented like this:
Translation matrix (x, y and z coordinates)
1 0 0 x
0 1 0 y
0 0 1 z
0 0 0 1
Scale matrix (again, x, y and z values)
x 0 0 0
0 y 0 0
0 0 z 0
0 0 0 1
Rotation matrix is a bit more involved, it is different on x, y and z axis, this is for example the z axis (for 2d rotation basically:
cos(theta) -sin(theta) 0 0
sin(theta) cos(theta) 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
By multiplying these matrices together in a strict way (translation * rotationxyz * scale), ypu get the trabsformation matrix.
Also, matrices are used in many more ways, like ptojection matrices, wich help to convert from 2d semi-ortographic projection to e.g perspective projection, or view matrix, wich defines the camera's position, you too have a view matrix.
If you multiply together the projection, the view and the model/transformation matrix, you get a modelviewprojection (MVP) matrix, wich is used, to get the screen positions of models or sprites.
To rotate your world around, you need to multiply every point with the rotation matrix you have, and you get the transformed position, wich look like it is rotated around.