Let's assume we have some arbitrary triangle manifold meshes which are transparent.
How real guys effectively render it?
Is it possible todo it without sorting faces back to front (e.g. via bsp) and then render it with blending?
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Yes, it's possible. The general idea is called order independent transparency (OIT).
OIT often relies on some form of sorting still (you in fact must having some form of sorting for certain types of blending!) but pushes the work out into the GPU, perhaps sorting per-pixel rather than per-face.
The more advanced and actually feasible forms of OIT require relatively modern hardware to pull off, though. Features like GPU atomics are required.
There's also techniques like weighted, blended order independent transparency and a few others.
There are also some kinds of transparency which can be done without any sorting at all (even at the per-pixel level)!
In these two cases you still need to draw the transparent items last, but any order will product the same result: