No, that's not how shaders work.
If you want to use a shader to manipulate a texture, you need to set up a render-to-texture operation. Create a result texture, bind it as the render target, bind your input texture as a regular input texture, and bind the shader you want to execute "once."
Render a fullscreen quad mapped with the input texture using the desired shader, and the result will be in the output texture which you can use in subsequent draw operations of real geometry.
Note, however, if you're trying to use this technique to animate the textures on otherwise regular geometry, it is not the most efficient way to do that; better would be to adapt the shaders used for the actual geometry to also include the effect you are trying to animate directly into the texture, as it would require far less resource management and state shuffling, which can be expensive and/or tedious.