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The value is for Homogeneous Coordinates. Using homogeneous coordinates makes it possible to use things like quaternions and projection matrices. The last entire row is actually for dealing with homogeneous coordinates. Essentially, the coordinates transformed by a 4x4 matrix will be a 4x1 vector, with (X,Y,Z,W) components. The final values of (X,Y,Z) are ...


Here's wiki on topic: Field of view in video games X and Y angles can be set separately to allow for wide/tall views. For example if you need a panorama for 3 displays like so, with default FOVy, but 120 degrees FOVx:


To calculate perspective projection divide by w. vec4 result = vec4(x, y, z, 1) * perspective_view_model_matrix; result /= w; You are then left with the (x,y) in screen space (-1 to 1). Multiply this by 1/2 screen width,height and you get pixel coordinates. You then need to take the corresponding vertex UVs, multiply by the texture size and you get ...

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