# Tagged Questions

An approximate representation, on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye.

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### Construction of perspective matrix

Is it possible to Construct a perspective matrix by multiplying a perspective transformation with a parallel projection ? I want a perspective projection in 2D space which is calculated by ...
25 views

### Perspective division by zero yields unexpected results

Usually, this is how a shape in clip space is defined: [0.25, 0.25, 0.0, 1.0] [0.25, 0.75, 0.0, 1.0] [0.75, 0.75, 0.0, 1.0] [0.75, 0.25, 0.0, 1.0] After perspective division to NDC space the result ...
126 views

### Java OpenGL Perspective matrix not working

I'm trying to render a simple triangle with OpenGL in Java using LWJGL3. Everything is working great, but the projection matrix (perspective) is not working. In C++ I just used to apply the ...
49 views

### Cursor position to a 3D ray using angles

I've been stuck for a month trying to get gluUnProject working. After my attempts to use gluUnProject failed (as well as attempts to implement gluUnProject functionality manually) I implemented method ...
47 views

### Getting ray using gluUnProject or inverted MVP matrix

I've read a lot of topics here, on SO, opengl.org etc. Example how gluUnProject should work (from NeHe tutorial): winX = (float)x; winY = (float)viewport[3] - (float)y; glReadPixels( x, int(winY), 1, ...
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### How does the SNES' Mode 7 sprite perspective projection work? [duplicate]

I've always wanted to know how to replicate the old Mode 7 graphics mode of the Super NES. It was frequently used for a pseudo-3D effect in racing games like Top Gear (gameplay video). Top Gear ⓒ ...
57 views

### Faking Perspective/Depth using 3D images converted to 2D sprites - Can't work it out!

after a lot of searching/reading/viewing old school game videos I am still unable to work out how to achieve the effect I am after. I am currently working on a 2D "overhead view" sci-fi RPG, using a ...
1k views

### How can I prevent the viewport from stretching/distorting?

Basically, I want to know how I can remove distortion or stretching of the rendered image when the viewport/window size changes. The following images exemplify the distortion/stretching I'm talking ...
42 views

### Perspective projection

I'm studying Perspective projection in a computer graphics course and i'm really confused about a detail. The study material says there are 3 cases: Case 1: View plane parallel to the xy plane and ...
7k views

### What is the view perspective angle of most 2.5D isometric games [closed]

I examined several quite popular games to determine what perspective angle they are using. For the purpose I created a grid that is 45 and 60 degrees isometric viewed and put it onto a screenshot (of ...
6k views

### 2D camera perspective projection from 3D coordinates — HOW?

I am developing a camera for a 2D game with a top-down view that has depth. It's almost a 3D camera. Basically, every object has a Z even though it is in 2D, and similarly to parallax layers their ...
484 views

### Position Reconstruction from Depth by inverting Perspective Projection

I had some trouble reconstructing position from depth sampled from the depth buffer. I use the equivalent of gluPerspective in GLM. The code in GLM is: template GLM_FUNC_QUALIFIER detail::tmat4x4 ...
339 views

### determining view boundaries based on z position when using a perspective projection

I'm using three.js to make an animation of a box moving around the screen in 3 dimensions. It is moving pseudo-randomly, according to a noise function. So, I want to place an invisible wall just ...
406 views

### How can I achieve a pseudo-3D camera effect like this?

I am trying to achieve a pseudo-3D camera effect similar to this: I have gotten the following results using a 3D camera and billboards: I am now running into the following problems: In the ...
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### Matching the 3ds max camera view in my game 1:1

I want to match 1:1 the 3ds max camera render with my 3d engine (DirectX 11, C++). I believe that my mesh exporter (coded with MaxScript) works fine, I see the right shapes. But something about the ...
224 views

### 2D game with angled top-down camera perspective [closed]

I want to create a game similar to binding of isaac, a slightly angled top-down 2D game. In binding of isaac, the character moves and shoots along a 4-way path, so when he is shooting towards East, ...
219 views

### Distortion problem with perspective projection

For various reasons – partly educational, partly technical – I'm writing a 3D game engine from scratch, using OpenGL 3.0; aiming for Core Profile, eventually, so of course I'm using a custom matrix ...
127 views

### Perspective Projection - Drawing Lines

So I sort of understand the math behind projecting 3d points onto a 2d plane. It's just some simple dividing and multiplication of distances. However I can't seem to wrap my head around projecting ...
587 views

### LibGDX camera position shifted on movement

I'm programming a game with LibGDX and Box2D and I want my camera to follow my player. But as I zoom in (because Box2Ds metric system, using camera.zoom = x) the camera is shifted when the player ...
520 views

### Isometric graphics with fake perspective

Diablo 2 is a game with isometric graphics. However, unlike other isometric games, D2 has the option to activate perspective. Obviously, the D2 developers found a clever trick to convincingly fake ...
211 views

### How can I mimic an isometric perspective using square tiles?

Can an isometric perspective be mimicked with traditional square tiles? Can't the effects of the 45-degree overhead view simply be "drawn in" to the square? How would this work? Picture this: the ...
1k views

### How do I calculate the z-coordinate for a perspective-camera in 2D?

I'm new to LibGDX and trying to use DecalBatch with PerspectiveCamera, simply to have Z-coordinate for my sprites, as SpriteBatch does not offer that. However, I don't know how to calculate the ...
1k views

### How do I crop a camera's viewport?

I'm making an Android game using LibGDX. I would like to render a cropped version of the camera's viewport. Here's an original camera view (in 3ds max): I can get the same view in LibGDX without ...
560 views

### Unity plane that is normal to Z axis

I want to create a plane that will be normal to the Z axis, but I am having difficulty visualizing what rotation it needs to have. I want to have a top-down view upon the plane such that I can use ...
113 views

### How to properly generate walls simulating perspective around stone in a cave-like level made of squares?

Long story short. My levels tiles currently look like this: And i want them to look like this: My levels are designed as 400x400 squares of proceduraly generated 0's and 1's, 0 representing ...
53 views

### Is it possible to reverse perspective projection with simple scale and translate? [duplicate]

Basically I'm asking this question (which seems to have gone un-answered): How to do perspective projection “parallax” but without changing the scale or offset of objects? I'm using perspective ...
120 views

### Fit a bounding box in the scene modifying FOV

Suppose I have a radius for a spherical bounding box around a mesh. My goal is to render the scene such as when the camera moves, the bounding box whose centre the camera look at, occupies always ...
337 views

I'm implementing a shadow map algorithm with a spotlight (a spotlight that always "looks" at a given object). My issue is that for some configuration, part of the object the light is "looking at" is ...
164 views

### Tunnels in pseudo 3D racing game

How would one go about doing tunnels in a pseudo 3D racing game ? The main problem I have at the moment is perspective - I cant think of a way, beyond having to Z sort the sprites and tunnel ...
1k views

### How would you draw a tile map with perspective?

I want the maps in the game I'm working (in Java) to be draw with perspective just to sugar coat it, but I'm not sure how that can be done. If anyone has an article about the math behind it or ...
621 views

### Drawing cube in SharpDX, wrong perspective

I want to draw a cube. This is what i currently have: As you can see, the perspective is VERY wrong. The the size in the z-direction is too small and the difference between the front and back size ...
278 views

### Best visual way to build a “near isometric” 2D view

I'm working hard in a 2D platform game, as far as I got is a standard 2D view (only x and y are visible) But I want to change the perspective so I can see the floor also. But the MapBuilder I ...
227 views

### Measuring distances on 2D perspective beat'em'up

I'm making a 2-D beat'em up. The tech demo is here. As you can see, the game is in perspective, pretty much like all old school brawlers. What I want to do is measure the distance between objects on ...
16 views

### 3D Perspective scrolling background [duplicate]

I'm not sure exactly how this is called, I'm talking about that kind of background, where your character is supposed to walk towards the center of your screen to the horizon, while in reality he is ...
328 views

### Distorted LookAt When Looking Up or Down?

I have a weird problem and I have no idea what's going on with it. Recently started doing some OpenGL programming, going pretty well, hit some rough spots but worked my way through them and otherwise ...
743 views

### Why are there different ways of building projection matrices?

Matrix.PerspectiveFovLH documentation page says that this method uses the following formula to build a perspective projection matrix. [w, 0, 0, 0] [0, h, 0, 0] [0, 0, zFar/(zFar - zNear), 1] [0, 0, ...
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### Where is the error in my perspective projection implementation?

My question is not really a game development question, but since it's based on 3D programming, I thought it would fit best here. I've got a line made out of Point3D objects where the value of x, y, ...
490 views

### What are the correct angles in the Top-down perspective?

In the following picture it says that in the Top-down perspective the angles are 90°, but if it would be 90° then you shouldn't see the front of the building and the roof at the same time... So what ...
799 views

### How do I draw tile in a side-on perspective? [closed]

All the tutorials I've found regarding using tiles in game engines refer to games with an isometric or top-down view, much like this: I want to make a "beat em up"-game, where the view is tilted. ...
668 views

### How can I draw a perspective-correct quad?

I'm trying to draw a quad in 2D (in SharpDX, but that is basically XNA). But texture correction is not working, and I'm getting only an affine textured quad. I'm using BasicEffect to render it. ...
1k views

### What is the logic behind a 3D Projection 'Camera Perspective'? [closed]

Suppose I had a 3D Cube on a 2D plane (screen). And I wanted to use the keypad to move and rotate it. Without referring to a 3D Game Engine that could do this for me can you explain me the logic or ...
266 views

### Cartesian Coordinates & Layout [duplicate]

The way cartesian coordinations are presented and used is kinda confusing. When working with 2D the vertical axis is Y, though when working with 3D the vertical axis is Z and Y becomes the "depth" ...
201 views

### Implementing axonometric bird-view in XNA

I made all kinds of logic (waypath, aso) for my strategical game, based on XNA (monogame). Now I "misused" the Vector2 a little bit: As I'm working from a "top-down" perspective, I'm using the Y-axis ...
654 views

### How do I implement a 2D camera in JPanel?

I'm trying to create a mario-esque game in Java and am at the point of implementing a camera. Following normalocity's example, I understand the difference between the GameWorld and the Camera that ...
468 views

### Creating a 2D perspective in 3D game

I'm new to XNA and 3D game development in general. I'm creating a puzzle game kind of similar to tetris, built with blocks. I decided to build the game in 3D since I can do some cool animations and ...
1k views

### Screen or World Coordinates to tile Coordinates

I have Plane made of tiles in opengl. I start drawing them at (0, 0, -20) after that i do my translations so that the view is rotated somewhat similar to an isometric (kind of) perspective. I'd now ...
141 views

### Correct way to calculate Perspective Matrix [duplicate]

I have seen at least 3 different ways to calculate the perspective matrix and I'm confused as to which one I should be using and what the differences are? OpenGL says to do it this way: f = ...
81 views

### Creating Animal Crossing style world rendering with Python [duplicate]

I've dabbled a bit with writing 3D rendering code in the past, although I'm interested in knowing if there is existing code (libraries) written for/with bindings to Python that might facilitate the ...