# 2D Skeletal Animation Transformations

I have been trying to build a 2D skeletal animation system for a while, and I believe that I'm fairly close to finishing. Currently, I have the following data structures:

``````struct Bone {
Bone *parent;
int child_count;
Bone **children;
double x, y;
};

struct Vertex {
double x, y;
int bone_count;
Bone **bones;
double *weights;
};

struct Mesh {
int vertex_count;
Vertex **vertices;
Vertex **tex_coords;
}
``````

`Bone->x` and `Bone->y` are the coordinates of the end point of the Bone. The starting point is given by `(bone->parent->x, bone->parent->y)` or `(0, 0)`. Each entity in the game has a `Mesh`, and `Mesh->vertices` is used as the bounding area for the entity. `Mesh->tex_coords` are texture coordinates. In the entity's update function, the position of the `Bone` is used to change the coordinates of the `Vertices` that are bound to it. Currently what I have is:

``````void Mesh_update(Mesh *mesh) {
int i, j;
double sx, sy;

for (i = 0; i < vertex_count; i++) {
if (mesh->vertices[i]->bone_count == 0) {
continue;
}

sx, sy = 0;
for (j = 0; j < mesh->vertices[i]->bone_count; j++) {
sx += (/* ??? */) * mesh->vertices[i]->weights[j];
sy += (/* ??? */) * mesh->vertices[i]->weights[j];
}

mesh->vertices[i]->x = sx;
mesh->vertices[i]->y = sy;
}
}
``````

I think I have everything I need, I just don't know how to apply the transformations to the final mesh coordinates. What tranformations do I need here? Or is my approach just completely wrong?

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I believe you would be looking to using transformation matrices here, though i think you need to elaborate upon your update function in order to accomodate for this. Ask yourself what transformations you need - translation, rotation?

``````        sx, sy = 0;
for (j = 0; j < mesh->vertices[i]->bone_count; j++) {
sx += (/* ??? */) * mesh->vertices[i]->weights[j];
sy += (/* ??? */) * mesh->vertices[i]->weights[j];
``````

I find sometimes putting something down in plain english helps. The above for e.g.:

For each bone, perform a (transformation) multiplied by the weights of the bone.

I would put more into

• Are we rotating or translating this bone?
• Does the parent constrain this
movement?

Matrices are handy for this because they can work off of a structure like this in that you can work out the constraint from the parent bone's information and apply it to the child bone.

• Perform transformation based on previous questions

This may be a completely wrong way about things, but certainly food for thought.

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