Given the definitions you've outlined here, "global effect" means "context state" and "local effect" means "object state".
Broadly speaking, no. OpenGL does not have a consistent naming scheme for what functions change object state and what functions change global state. This is primarily due to the fact that many of the functions that change object state were once only changing global state.
glTexParameter. Texture objects only came into existence in GL 1.1. The reason OpenGL requires you to bind objects to modify them is precisely for this: so that you can't tell the difference. This way, if they later decide to make some state "object state", you would use the same APIs to set that data, rather than having separate function calls for the "old way" and the "new way".
This is better nowadays in core profile OpenGL, as most functions that modify object state are named in accord with the objects that they modify. All of the
glTex functions modify texture object state (
glTexEnv was removed from OpenGL in 3.1). All of the
glBuffer functions modify buffer object state. All of the
glFramebuffer functions modify framebuffer object state.
But even here, there are exceptions.
glUniform modifies program object state, but since it doesn't take the program as a parameter, it omits the word "Program" from the name (unlike
glProgramParameter or the more recent
glProgramUniform). Futhermore, older calls like
glDrawBuffer(s) modify framebuffer object state, despite not using the word "framebuffer". Again, that's for backwards compatibility reasons; the
glFramebuffer functions were all new functionality, but setting the read and draw buffers was old stuff, and thus had to use the old APIs.
So generally speaking, no, there is no way to be certain just from looking at a function's name to know whether it modifies context state or object state.