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I am working on simple 2D engine using OpenGL (3.3+) for rendering and was wondering what the optimal method of sprite batching would be. I plan to put all sprites into one (or fewer) texture atlases. Unsurprisingly, each sprite consists of 2 triangles and 4 texture coordinates. For simplicity, let's assume only the sprites are not animated for now.

Now to my question, I do not know what would be the optimal way to draw them. As far as I was able to dig up, I have two options:

  1. Draw each sprite separately, which would allow me to modify the position/rotation/scale of each sprite within the shader via MVP matrices. This also means that I would not need to update the sprite data buffers (vertex pos. & tex. coords) on GPU.

  2. Stuff all sprites' data into a single VBO and draw them all with one glDrawElements call (assuming they use the same texture atlas and shader). However, I would then need to update the VBO every frame (or at least the changed parts, which also means that I would have to watch every sprite's state).

Which of these options is better from a practical point of view? Or is there any other method to achieve what I'm trying to do?

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