I'd say option 1 is actually far better for beginners.
With option 2, if you're supposed to finish in 2 minutes and you finish in 3:00 instead, you may not know where you did wrong.
With individual checkpoints the game tells you at which part of the course you're doing below average. That allows learning and improving play specifically in these parts, and encourages trying alternate approaches such as breaking before a hairpin.
With individual checkpoints you also only fail a little if you fail, say you miss the deadline by 2 seconds, or because of one avoidable crash. That way you improve on each try and as a gamer you notice visible progress as you manage to clear more and more checkpoints - getting from 3 out of 15 checkpoints to 4 out of 15 checkpoints is way more encouraging than driving 2 whole laps and improving your time from 3:00 to 2:55 if the target is 2:00.
Once the player manages to finish the course in reasonable time, i.e. clears all checkpoints, and the beginner has learned how to drive the course, then is the time to take actual time into account. At that point you'll start handing out more stars for better times, or have a best time that compares online with your friends.