# How do I make an entity move in a direction?

I have an Entity instance which is updated every game tick. Let's just assume that entity moves forward constantly. I'd like to be able to give the entity's angle to a function that makes it move in that direction:

moveForward(90); should make them move to the right. If I declared my rotation as a global int, then doing

moveForward(rotation);
rotation++;


would make it trace a small circle with its movement.

How can I do this? I assume this involves vector math; I don't know any, so a brief explanation would be nice.

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Well in the simplest sense you have something like this.

   y  |\
| \
m  |  \         s
o  |   \        p
v  |(a) \       e
(y)e  |angle\      e
m  |      \     d
e  |       \
n  |        \
t  |         \
|__________\
x movement
(x)


The speed is however fast the enemy is, and you can determine how much they should move in the x direction and how much they move in the y direction by taking the sin or cos of the angle and multiplying by speed. Because...

 sin(a) = x / speed


So:

 x = speed * sin(a)


And:

cos(a) = y / speed


So:

y = speed * cos(a)


In your example moveForward(90) would yield speed * sin(90) or speed * 1 in the x direction and speed * cos(90) or 0 in the y direction (It should move to the right as you specified). That should get you started in the basic sense.

Making it general:

moveForward(float angle)
{
x += speed * sin(angle);
y += speed * cos(angle);
}

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Ahh, thats a lot simpler than i imagined, thanks a lot :) –  Shaun Wild Sep 14 '12 at 16:11
I'm pretty sure you need to switch y's and x's. sin(alpha) = b/c. –  jco Sep 14 '12 at 17:52
@Bane it matches the drawing I made SOH-CAH-TOA, sin is opposite over hypotenuse which in the drawing is x / speed. If the angle were on the other side of the triangle it would be reversed (and if that is more practical for the purpose of game design I could change it, but I feel its all arbitrary). –  Kevin DiTraglia Sep 14 '12 at 17:57
I'm on my mobile phone so it was pretty hard to interpret that. I just skimmed over the formulas... –  jco Sep 14 '12 at 18:00
That's a really nice triangle you got there. +1 –  Bro Kevin D. Apr 18 '13 at 5:17

You said update ticks, so I'm assuming you don't have a variable frame rate. If so:

x += speed * math.cos(angle)

y += speed * math.sin(angle)

If you're using variable frame rate, you need to multiply by delta time as well.

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The other answer is wrong as of now, to correctly move along a plane based on a rotation you do the following:

posX += Math.cos(rotation) *  forwardSpeed + Math.sin(rotation) * strafeSpeed;
posY -= -Math.cos(rotation) * strafeSpeed + Math.sin(rotation) * forwardSpeed;


However I'd recommend making a variable for cos/sin that you update only when the rotation changes so you aren't calculating it 4 times a tick.

The strafeSpeed would be moving from side to side, the forwardSpeed for moving forward along your rotation.

edit: tesselode does the same thing except he doesnt have side to side movement.

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