First of all, your exported image should match the size of the sprite in android. So if you're creating 32x32 sized images, your sprites should ideally be rendered as 32x32 on your device screen. Don't expect a 32x32 image to look good when your sprite takes 100x100 pixels on the device!
Exporting vector art from Illustrator to an image (eg. PNG) to use in Android should not be accompanied with any quality loss. Sure, you're losing the scalability of the vector artwork, but when bitmap and vector artwork are both shown at 100% scaling, then they should look identical (if they do not, there's probably a flaw in your workflow).
But it's more likely, that you're experiencing a texture-filturing/mip-mapping issue. Depending on your camera distance, you might see a mip-mapped version of your artwork which would explain the blurred images.
To get an output close to what you see in illustrator, you should disable mip-mapping and probably also set texture-filtering to
GL_NEAREST. Here's an excellent tutorial about texture-filtering on android.