For concreteness, let's say that your screen spans from sx_0 to sx_1 and sy_0 to sy_1 (so the four corners of the screen are (sx_0, sy_0), (sx_1, sy_0), (sx_1, sy_1) and (sx_0, sy_1) ) and likewise that the inner box runs from ix_0 to ix_1 and iy_0 to iy_1; finally, say the user has touched at (tx,ty).
The simplest way to order the tests is to first test the touch point against the inner square; knowing that it's not inside simplifies the other ones. This test is straightforward: if
(tx >= ix_0) && (ty >= iy_0) && (tx < ix_1) && (ty < iy_1)
then your point is in the inner rectangle. How you want to handle the edge cases with respect to points in the center box is, of course, up to you - be careful with them, though!
Once you know your point isn't in the inner box, the most straightforward way of testing each of the other regions is by doing two 'half-space' comparisons against the diagonal lines that bound them. To explain in slightly more detail: the equation of a line, generically, is 'A.P=b', where P=(x,y) is an arbitrary point on the line, A is a vector perpendicular to the line, and b is some constant; what's more, if a vector in the direction of the line is (vx, vy), then the vector (vy, -vx) is perpendicular to the line. What's that mean here? Well, consider the dividing line in the top-left corner: this line goes from (sx_0, sy_0) to (ix_0, iy_0), so a vector in the direction of the line is (ix_0-sx_0, iy_0-sy_0) and a vector perpendicular to the line is (iy_0-sy_0, sx_0-ix_0) (be careful - notice how the second coordinate got flipped!) What's more, we can find the value of b by plugging in one of the two points we know is on the line: for instance, using (sx_0, sy_0) we find that the dot product is sx_0*(iy_0-sy_0)+sy_0*(sx_0-ix_0), or (cancelling out the sx_0*sy_0 terms) sx_0*iy_0-sy_0*ix_0. In other words, the equation of the line is (iy_0-sy_0)*x+(sx_0-ix_0)*y = sx_0*iy_0-sy_0*ix_0. What's more, which side of the line a point is on is determined by whether the dot product is less than or greater than sx_0*iy_0-sy_0*ix_0.
Finally, to use this: consider for instance the top region. Then this is the section that lies to a specific side of the line from (sx_0, sy_0) to (ix_0, iy_0) and also on a specific side of the line from (sx_1, sy_0) to (ix_1, iy_0). In other words, to test your point (tx, ty), you'll know that it's in your region a if:
tx*(iy_0-sy_0)+ty*(sx_0-ix_0) > sx_0*iy_0-sy_0*ix_0
tx*(iy_0-sy_0)+ty*(sx_1-ix_1) <= sx_1*iy_0-sy_0*ix_1
Likewise, you can do similar tests for the other three regions using the appropriate lines from inner to outer corner. These tests may look complicated, but they're pretty straightforward and they have a lot of advantages: they'll work no matter where your inner box is (as long as the box is entirely contained inside your screen), whatever the dimensions of your screen and inner box are, and they don't involve anything more complicated than a few multiplies - they can even be done in purely integer math if need be.