I've never worked with libgdx and only briefly checked its documentation. I'm not aware if it has support for what you're asking out of the box, but even if it doesn't have, you can still emulate it yourself with a bit of work. I've written about a related topic before here. It's written for XNA but the concepts are universal, so hopefully it will give you a starting point if you really need to implement it yourself.
Basically you'd want to start by encapsulating the sprite class in a new class of your own, by adding a list to hold the children sprites, and optionally a link back to the parent sprite.
After that, I'm not going to go into much detail because I've already described the procedure in the other question, but basically it consists of creating a world matrix from each sprite's "relative" position/rotation/scale. To transform from "relative" to "absolute" you need to multiply that sprite's "relative" matrix by the parent's "absolute" matrix. This is done all the way to the top of the hierarchy, i.e. at the top level there's no difference between "relative" or "absolute".
Finally, after you have the "absolute" matrix calculated, you decompose it to get back the correct position/rotation/scale to set your sprite to.
You can probably also do it without matrices too but I've never figured the calculations out.